1. NGO Expo February 2021

In association with the then Cabinet Minister, Deputy Commissioner, Police Commissioner & Municipal Commissionerate Conducted 1st ever NGO exhibition with 45 NGOs and 10 Government Departments attended by over 5000 audience and students.

2. COVID Vaccination Drive April 2021

In association with the office of Deputy Commissionerate & Civil Surgeon Organised 700+ COVID vaccination camps in Ludhiana and vaccinated over 1.50 lacs citizens in one month. Our founder was awarded the Citizens Award on Independence day by the district administration


3. NGO Carnival October 2021

In association with Deputy Commissioner and Department of Social Labour & Employment conducted a sale of products made by NCLP students, SHG and NGOs through 26 stalls.

4. Hara Bhara Ludhiana (July 2022 & July 2023)

In association with Department of Forest and Municipal Corporation executes a 21 days Tree ATM campaign where our team goes to locations requested and plant trees.

5. Facilitation for Punjab Nirmaan Yojna February 2022

Executed 16 projects worth 66 lacs with grants facilitated to local NGOs under the Punjab NirmaanYojna

CityNeeds Daan Utsaav – 2 (October 2022 & 2023)

In association with Municipal Corporation Ludhiana conduct a used material collection drive from 2nd to 8th October and distribute the collected material to local NGOs as per their requirements. We have been collecting over 50,000 items every year under the RRR project.

YouTube Link – 1. 2.

NBQP (Quality Council of India) 2023
Mobilised schools across Punjab to nominate students in Quality Contest wherein they had to prepare and submit videos and posters as per the guidelines given,

Disability Certification Facilitation Camps – 22
In association with Civil Hospital Ludhiana, we have conducted 22 awareness and facilitation camps for medical check-ups and issuance of disability certificates leading to pension. Over 1400 candidates have gone through the medical check-up so far out of which 500+ have started getting the disability pension.

YouTube Link –

SOCH – Expo February 2024
We mobilised schools across Punjab to participate in a state level exhibition on environmental conservation initiatives.

ZED Certification – Jul 2023 onwards
Created awareness and did handholding of over 5600 MSME in Punjab and 12000 outside Punjab to enrol and qualify for ZED Certification scheme by Ministry of MSME, Government of India.

YouTube Link -

Campus Reporter
Executed Campus Reporter program by training over 100 students from 19 different institutions as Campus Reporters to produce and publish content of their community welfare projects in 2023 and enrolled 29 schools & 5 Colleges for 2024-25 batch.

YouTube Link – 1 2.

India Hypertension Control Initiative
Mobilised 36 schools to nominate 300 volunteers in the India Hypertension Control Initiative by Indian Council of Medical Research being executed by DMCH. Volunteers have been trained as Health Warriors to take blood pressure of 10000 persons under “Mission SwasthKavach”

YouTube Link -

YUG Program
In process of executing the “Youth for Urban Governance” Program in 100+ schools and colleges of Ludhiana by the Deputy Commissioner in association with the Municipal Corporation and Smart City Ludhiana offering volunteering, knowledge and general awareness programs.

Fund Raisers
Successfully executed over 200 fund raisers for NGO’s, Hospitals, Schools, District Administration etc by raising funds of over 2 crore.


Campus Reporter – Assignment No. 1 – Formation of CityNeeds Community Club

Subject: Make a video to invite students to join the Community Club

Purpose of Your Video

To inform the most active and progressive students of your school about CityNeeds Community Club and how they can benefit from it.

What type of content do you want to produce?

You need to inform the progressive students of your institution that CityNeeds Community Club is a huge platform which will showcase their skills and achievements on the district and then the state level. However, at the institution level we, the Campus Reporters are the point of contact for you to cover your activities, events and capabilities and publish them on CityNeeds Platform.

Who are your audience? 

The most progressive students of all student Clubs in your institution should be the members of the CityNeeds Community Club. However, other than these all other students are also invited but the front runners must be involved.

Who are your Content Providers?

You, the Campus Reporter Team has to generate this content.

Final Steps

  1. Record your group video introducing the CityNeeds Community Club, role of campus reporter with an appeal to your target content providers to join the Community Club so that you can cover their activities and achievements and showcase to the world. 
  2. Make a list of all the student clubs in your institutions and meet their in-charge personally to explain the above and invite them to join.

Campus Reporter

Select Activity Month

Content Submission Guidelines for Institution – CityNeeds Campus Reporter Program

Congratulations on enrolling in the CityNeeds Campus Reporter Training Program! We are excited to have you on board. To ensure the success of the program and the quality of content produced, please adhere to the following submission guidelines:

1. Submission Format:

Video submissions must be in MP4 format with a resolution of at least 720p

Videos should be either in landscape (for Facebook and YouTube) or portrait (Instagram and Twitter) format.

2.Submission Platform:

Please submit content on following URL in the respective month as per Activity Calendar

Steps for Submission

  1. Click on the Month of Activity
  2. Fill your First Name, Last Name, email id, File to upload and Activity Name and Click on Enter
  3. Your post will be approved within 4 Working Hours of submission. 
  4. After approval of your entry, you can share it on Social Media. 
  5. Ask your school mates, friends and other people to Vote on your post. Toppers of the month will be selected based on the no. of votes. You can view the count of votes to all the entries at the above URL under the Vote section.

Facebook / Twitter: 

  1. Click on FB/Twitter Icon. 
  2. Tag CityNeeds
  3. Write HashTag #CampusReporter #cityNeeds in description


  1. Copy the URL of entry uploaded by you
  2. Paste the URL in your Bio
  3. Upload same Video on Instagram
  4. Collab with CityNeeds
  5. Write HashTag #Campus Reporter #cityNeeds in description

3.Topics and Schedule

Campus Reporters are required to produce 10 videos over the course of one year, covering various community welfare topics, activities, and projects within their institutions. They are required to submit content of all 6 Mandatory topics and 4 topics out of optional topics.

The videos should be of high quality, informative, and engaging, with a focus on highlighting positive initiatives and stories within the campus community.

Content creation should adhere to ethical standards of journalism, with accurate information, balanced reporting, and respect for privacy and consent.

4.Submission Deadlines:

Campus Reporters need to submit their content till the last day of month as per calendar provided by CityNeeds. Adherence to deadlines is crucial to ensure the smooth execution of the program and the timely posting of content on Social Media. The Review session will be held in the second week of the month on Saturday at 4 PM of content submitted by Campus Reporters in the previous month.

Please note that last date to submit the assignment is 20th May. The last date of formation of Community Club is 30th May

5.Content Length:

Length of Videos varies for the format and purpose they are used for and must adhere to duration else will be rejected by the editor

Facebook : In Horizontal Mode, Video of maximum 3 Minutes

Instagram : In Vertical (Reel) Mode, Video of maximum 90 Seconds

Youtube : In Horizontal Mode, Video of maximum 3 Minutes

Longer videos may be accepted for special projects, subject to prior approval.

6.Content Production:

Ensure that videos are well-produced with clear audio, visuals, lighting and editing.

Use appropriate equipment and software to enhance the quality of the production as taught during the orientation and monthly review meetings.

7.Content Promotion:

Promote the content within the campus community through social media, newsletters, and other communication channels.

Encourage engagement and feedback from fellow students, faculty, and staff members.

8.Ownership and Rights:

By submitting content, you grant CityNeeds the right to use, distribute, and display the content for promotional and educational purposes on CityNeeds and its partner Social media channels.

Ensure that all content submitted does not infringe upon the intellectual property rights of third parties. The Campus Reporter and the Institution will be responsible for content provided by them.

9.Feedback and Revisions:

CityNeeds may provide feedback during the review meetings on submitted content to help improve quality and adherence to guidelines.

10.Contact Information:

For any questions or concerns regarding content submission, please contact Meenakshi Miglani @ 7986623516

Thank you for your commitment to producing high-quality content for the CityNeeds Campus Reporter Program. Your contributions play a vital role in raising awareness and fostering positive change within the campus community.

If you have any questions or concerns, please don’t hesitate to reach out to us. We look forward for your active participation

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

The CityNeeds Campus Reporter Program is an initiative aimed at empowering students with journalism skills and knowledge while focusing on community welfare within their campus environment. Students produce high-quality content on various community welfare topics and projects within their institutions.

The program aims to provide students with the opportunity to produce high-quality content related to community welfare topics, activities, and projects within their institutions. Students develop valuable skills in video production, storytelling, and community engagement.

The specific topics are outlined in the annual calendar provided by CityNeeds. Mandatory topics must be covered by all reporters, while optional topics provide flexibility for students to choose based on their interests.

The specific topics are outlined in the annual calendar provided by CityNeeds. Mandatory topics must be covered by all reporters, while optional topics provide flexibility for students to choose based on their interests.

Format: Videos must be in MP4 format with a resolution of at least 720p.

Orientation: Videos should be in landscape format for Facebook and YouTube, and portrait format for Instagram and Twitter.


For Facebook and YouTube, videos should be a maximum of 3 minutes.

For Instagram Reels, videos should be a maximum of 90 seconds.

  • Visit the URL: 
  • Select the month of the activity.
  • Fill in your first name, last name, email ID, the file you want to upload, and the activity name.
  • Click ‘Enter’ to submit your post.

Your post will be approved within 4 working hours.

After approval, you can share the video on social media and encourage your peers to vote for your post.


Tag CityNeeds and use hashtags #CampusReporter #cityNeeds in the description.


Copy the URL of your uploaded entry and paste it in your bio.

Upload the same video on Instagram, collaborate with CityNeeds, and use hashtags #CampusReporter #cityNeeds in the description

Ask your schoolmates, friends, and others to vote on your post. The top performers of the month will be selected based on the number of votes received.

Review sessions are held in the second week of each month on Saturday at 4 PM to review content submitted by Campus Reporters in the previous month.

CityNeeds provides feedback during these sessions to help improve content quality and adherence to guidelines.

Comprehensive orientation and training sessions.

Monthly hand-holding sessions to guide students in content creation.

Feedback and revisions to help improve quality and adherence to guidelines.

Adhere to ethical standards of journalism.

Ensure accurate information, balanced reporting, and respect for privacy and consent.

Use appropriate equipment and software to enhance the quality of production.

Campus Reporters must submit their content by the date prescribed by CityNeeds. Adherence to deadlines is crucial for the smooth execution of the program.

Top performers of the month based on votes received on content will be recognized and rewarded by CityNeeds.

Recognition may include certificates of achievement, mentorship opportunities, further training, and potential career development prospects.

For any questions or concerns regarding content submission, contact Meenakshi Miglani at +91-7986623516.

Thank you for your commitment to producing high-quality content for the CityNeeds Campus Reporter Program. Your contributions play a vital role in raising awareness and fostering positive change within the campus community.

Donor Certificate

Thank you for your generous donation! We appreciate your support in making a difference in the lives of those in need. To ensure transparency and provide you with the necessary documentation for your contribution, we have made it easy for you to download your donation certificate.

Please follow the steps below to access and download your donation certificate:

  1. Click on Proceed to Certificate
  2. Enter Your Details:
  3. Click on Submit Button
  4. You will get your digital certificate on WhatsApp Number provided by you in 2-5 Minutes
  5. Share your Digital Certificate on WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, SnapChat, Twitter, LinkedIn etc.
  6. Motivate others to become part of this social cause and save lives.

Students Pledge

Please pledge here to for total cleanliness of surroundings this year!

Follow the steps mentioned below:
  1. Click on Pledge Button
  2. Fill your contact details
  3. You will get your digital certificate on WhatsApp Number provided by you in 2-5 Minutes
  4. Share your Digital Certificate on WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, SnapChat, Twitter, LinkedIn etc.
  5. Motivate others to become part of this social cause and save lives.

Daan Utsav 2023

Tailored Just for You: Our Newsletter Delights

1. What is CityNeeds Daan Utsaav?

CityNeeds Daan Utsaav is a festival where we celebrate and enjoy the Joy of Giving! CityNeeds has many NGO partners who need donations, material and volunteers across the year to serve their community. CityNeeds is an online crowd funding platform that showcases the projects of NGOs and tries to connect them with nearest donors and volunteers in their own city.

CityNeeds Daan Utsaav is celebrated every year in which we highlight the requirements of our NGOs or the needy persons and our donors, citizens and students come together in a big way and fulfil those requirements. After final segregation the distribution is done a week later. 

We are proud to share that Municipal Corporation Ludhiana is the official partner of CityNeeds Daan Utsaav 2023

2. How can you participate?

a. Individuals & Residents Colonies

You Can Donate between 6th to 10th October at any of the Collection Centers. Give a Miss call to 7877778803

Donate New Items
Donate Usable Items
Donate Waste Material
b. Institutions

Institutions have the most important role in mobilising youth in large numbers who further sensitize their families to donate the usable material.

This year we have a special drive for the youth to collect e-waste from their homes, factories and offices that we can collectively give to a professional processing unit and avoid the hazardous material going to our landfills that has serious consequences.

Students of an institution will bring the segregated, packed and labelled material to our main collection centres between 12th to 15th October.

Can provide Volunteers constitute working committees to organise the drive.
c. Industry

We depend on Industry to fuel this drive in following ways

d. NGO

NGOs can give their requirements of funds, new and used items and volunteers and CityNeeds will try to connect relevant donors and volunteers during CityNeeds Daan Utsaav and provide the required material.

e. Students

What can you donate and how do we use it?

Visit our website and see the requirements of our partner NGOs. If you feel like supporting that cause you can either visit the NGO or donate online. Your donations directly go to the bank account of the concerned NGO.

You can also donate any material that you are not using or even can buy new one and donate which can include the following

Donate New or Used Material

1. Clothes & Shoes
2. Beddings & Utensils
3. Grocery
4. Books
5. Toys & Games
6. Appliances
7. Medicine
8. Blood
9. Pledge Organ Donation
10. Dry Waste
11. E-Waste
Contact Us:

Zero Effect Zero Deffect

Attention:-Do not make any payment of ZED Certification to any person as Certification Fee / Hand Holding Fee is directly paid ONLINE to Quality Council of India through the MSME Mobile App or on website The prescribed fee structure is available in the FAQ section on our website.

Zed Certification: 

ZED Certification Scheme for Sustainable SMEs: This scheme enables MSMEs to pursue ZED certification at three different levels – bronze, silver, and gold. Each level involves an assessment based on specific parameters.

Benefits by Government of India
  • Listing on
  • Direct Listing of Silver & Gold on GEM (Government e-Marketplace) Portal
  • Concession in Processing Fee and Rate of Interest on Bank Loans
  • Joining Reward of Rs. 10000 (can be used for any certification)
  • Subsidy on cost of Certification (80%, 60% & 50%) upto Rs. 72000
  • Additional Subsidy for Women Entrepreneurs @ 10% upto Rs. 9000
  • Subsidy on cost of handholding / consultancy upto Rs. 160,000
  • Financial Assistant upto 75% of the total cost of testing or Management Systems or Product Certification with the maximum ceiling Rs. 50,000 (BIS, NABCB, NABL)
  • Financial Assistant upto Rs. 3 Lakh for technology upgradation for moving towards Zero Effect Solutions / Pollution control measures/cleaner technology
  • Admissibility of discount scheme in freight rates for parcels
Punjab Industrial & Business Development Policy dt. 08.02.2023
  • MSME units shall register themselves under the ZED Scheme and achieve maturity level at least Bronze category within 3 years from the date of production/expansion production.
  • In case of failing to achieve Bronze level certification, future disbursement of fiscal incentives including exemption of electricity Duty, Mandi Fees, Property tax, SGST Incentive etc. will be stopped
Benefits to MSME  by Punjab Government
  • 50% of cost (Max. Rs. 5 Lakh): Plant & Machinery/Testing equipment (Gold only)
  • 25% of cost (Max. Rs. 10 Lakh):  Registration of National Stock Exchange
  • 50% of cost (Max. Rs. 25 Lakh): adopting technology from a recognized National Institute
  • 75% of cost (Max. Rs. 1.5 Lakh): each for Energy/Environment/Steam/Water/ Safety Audit
  • 50% of cost (Max. Rs. 25 Lakh): on capital cost of Effluent Treatment Plant, Installation of Water Pollution Control Devices, and Installing Zero Liquid Discharge Technology
  • 75% of cost (Max. Rs. 10 Lakh/Rs. 20 Lakh) : Domestic Patent /International Patent
  • 25% of cost (Max. Rs. 10k) : Additional Support for Performance and Credit Rating Scheme
  • 100% of cost (Max. Rs.10 Lakh ): All quality certifications including ZED certification
  • 1% of FOB value or Actual Freight paid from the place of Manufacture to the place of shipment, whichever is less subject to Maximum of Rs. 20 Lakh per annum for 5 years.
  • Annual award of Rs. 1 lakh per unit for excellence in Productivity, Quality, Export for each category of enterprise
  • Reimbursement of the contribution of Industries of Rs. 1 Lakh per program for Design Awareness Program by National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad

Details required for ZED Certification

  1. Udhyam Adhaar Registration Certificate
  2. Photo of MSME Representative
  3. Photo of Building
  4. Photo of Working Area
  5. Photo of Product
  6. Photo of Raw Material Storage
  7. Photo of Finished Goods Storage
  8. Photo of Toilet
  9. Photo of Fire Extinguisher
  10. Photo of employees wearing Personal Protective Equipment like Jacket, Helmet, Gloves, Shoes, Mask etc.
  11. Photo of Product Delivery Record


MSME Sustainable (ZED) Certification is an extensive drive to create awareness amongst MSMEs about Zero Defect Zero Effect (ZED) practices and motivate and incentivize them for ZED Certification while also encouraging them to become MSME Champions. Through the journey of ZED Certification, MSMEs can reduce wastages substantially, increase productivity, enhance environmental consciousness, save energy, optimally use natural resources, expand their markets, etc. MSMEs will also be motivated to adopt best practices in work culture, standardization of products, processes and systems etc. in order to enhance their global competitiveness and sustainability. The ZED Certification aims at enhancing the competitiveness of an MSME by assessment, modification through guidance, handholding, managerial and technological intervention – not just certification.

Please visit ZED website to know about MSME Sustainable (ZED) Certification Scheme at

The ZED Certification envisages promotion of Zero Defect Zero Effect (ZED) practices amongst MSMEs so as to:

Encourage and enable MSMEs for manufacturing of quality products using latest technology, tools & to constantly upgrade their processes for achievement of high quality and high productivity with the least effect on the environment

Develop an Ecosystem for ZED Manufacturing in MSMEs, for enhancing competitiveness and enabling exports

Promote adoption of ZED practices and recognising the efforts of successful MSMEs

Encourage MSMEs to achieve higher ZED Certification levels through graded incentives

Increase public awareness on demanding Zero Defect and Zero Effect products through the MSME Sustainable (ZED) Certification

Identify areas to improve upon, thereby assisting the Government in policy decisions and investment prioritization

ZED Certification is not mandatory by the Government; it is a voluntary scheme which will provide the MSMEs a roadmap to global competitiveness.

All manufacturing sector MSMEs registered with the UDYAM registration portal (of the MoMSME) will be eligible to participate in MSME Sustainable (ZED) Certification and avail related benefits/incentives.

Visit the ZED website ( and click on the ZED Certification tab. You will then be directed to the Login/Registration Page where you will have to put your Udyam registration number and associated mobile number to proceed further. Once the validation is done you have to read and take the ZED Pledge. You may also refer to the detailed User Manual for ZED Certification, which is available on the website and your dashboard under “My Document” section.

ZED Certification is based on processes oriented quality specific standard and does not replace any other regulation/requirement or certification.

The ZED Scheme will be implemented nationwide through Organisations and Agencies such as QCI, NPC, Industry Chambers like CII, FICCI & ASSOCHAM, MSME-Development Institutes, MSME Technology Centres, Industry Associations, BEE, and other implementing agencies.

The major activities under the ZED Certification Scheme are:

Industry awareness programs, regional/state/national workshops, training of officials of DIs, TCs, DICs

Training of Master Trainers, Assessors & Consultants


Assessment, Certification and Surveillance

Gap analysis & Handholding for improving processes

International Benchmarking

Financial Supports

Site-assessments will be allocated to Assessment Agencies which have been accredited by Quality Council of India. The assessments will be carried out by Assessors from these accredited assessment agencies, who have undergone and passed a ZED Assessors training programme

The Gap analysis and handholding activity in the scheme will be allocated to Consulting Organizations which have been empanelled by Quality Council of India. The handholding will be carried out by Consultants from these empanelledOrganisations, who have undergone and passed a ZED Consultant training Programme.

Please click on 

Yes. This MSME Sustainable (ZED) Certification Scheme covers all the MSME sectors belonging to manufacturing

All MSMEs which are registered with Ministry of MSME can avail scheme benefits irrespective of the certifications they may have.

Yes. All MSMEs which are registered with Ministry of MSME can avail scheme benefits irrespective of the certifications they may have.

ZED certification is independent of Certifications like ISO etc. MSMEs are free to obtain any other certifications simultaneously.

The office of DC-MSME is actively pursuing this and discussions are in process to establish recognition/preference to ZED certified units among CPSUs, OEMs, Large buyers etc.

ZED certification system addresses and provides roadmap for enhancing business and greatly cutting down the cost. Though this is a voluntary scheme, the implementation of ZED will not be a burden but a boon to the MSMEs.

No, the allocation will be done by the implementing agency through a pre-defined process.

At present this scheme is designed for the manufacturing MSMEs of India, however work is in progress to create a model for the MSMEs in the service sector.

No. Only the Udyam registered MSMEs can participate in this scheme.

The scheme is applicable for all states/UTs of India.

  1. A limited-purpose joining reward of Rs. 10,000/- will be offered to each MSME once they take the ZED Pledge which needs to be utilized within a defined time period for the purpose defined.
  2. The Ministry of MSME will provide a subsidy of 80% to Micro enterprises, 60% to Small enterprises & 50% to Medium enterprises. There will be an additional subsidy of 10% for the MSMEs owned by Women/SC/ST Entrepreneurs OR MSMEs in NER/Himalayan/LWE/Island territories /aspirational districts.

Cost of Certification

  1. Certification Level 1: BRONZE: Rs. 10,000/-
  2. Certification Level 2:SILVER: Rs. 40,000/-
  3. Certification Level 3: GOLD: Rs. 90,000/-


For more detail about the scheme you can download the guidelines of the scheme by following this scheme:

MSME Unit needs to be at least ZED Bronze certified to seek handholding support. Please see page number 17, Section 3.5 of ZED Scheme Guidelines.

MSMEs are eligible to apply for reimbursement on ISO or other Certifications only after achieving a ZED Certification Level. Date of such Certificate (for which reimbursement is being sought) needs to be after the date of relevant ZED Certificate against which the financial support is sought. Please see page number 12, Section financial assistance in testing/system/product certification

Joining reward can only be used against assessment fee. Please see page number 10, Section 3.4.5 c of ZED Scheme Guidelines.

There is no surveillance in Bronze. After expiry of validity the MSME needs to upgrade to Silver or Gold or renew Bronze. Please see page number 17, Surveillance and Section 3.4.8 of ZED Scheme Guidelines.

Surveillance in Silver Certification shall be done remotely. Please see page number 17, Surveillance of ZED Scheme Guidelines.

Since the Scheme and Standard have undergone changes, assessors/consultants/master-trainers will have to undergo fresh training and examination.

Industry Awareness programmes shall be conducted by Industry Associations, Implementing Agencies, MSME-DIs, District Industries Centres (DICs), Large Enterprises/OEMs, BEE. Please see page number 4, Section 2.2 of ZED Scheme Guidelines.

Consulting under the ZED Scheme shall be conducted by empanelled Consulting Organizations. Guidelines for empanelment of Consulting Organizations shall be uploaded soon on the ZED Website.

Assessments under the ZED Scheme will be conducted by only those Agencies which are accredited by NABCB. Please see page number 9, Section 3.4.1. of ZED Scheme Guidelines.

Apart from Assessment & Certificate under MSME KAWACH, MSMEs can get a detailed understanding of the SOPs/ Guidelines/Key-elements to be followed on COVID-19. This will help the MSMEs to carry out a quick self-assessment to identify gaps, if any, and make improvements. They shall also be provided Capacity building on the SOPs/guidelines issued, through virtual trainings/ webinars and through e-learning modules. Please see page number 23, Annexure 4 of ZED Scheme Guidelines.

The Management System Certification must be through a Certification Body that is accredited by the National Accreditation Board for Certification Bodies (NABCB). Please see page number 12, 14 and 16, “Financial assistance in testing/system/product certification” of ZED Scheme Guidelines.

The subsidy will be applicable on only one Testing OR one Management System OR one Product Certification after achieving a ZED Certification Level. Subsidy is only on cost of Certification. Please see page number 12, 14 and 16, “Financial assistance in testing/system/product certification” point 5 of ZED Scheme Guidelines.